What are epilepsy and its causes and treatment?


What are epilepsy and its causes and treatment?

Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system that causes a malfunction in the transmission of electrical signals within the brain. Some may think that epilepsy appears only in the form of episodes of loss of consciousness, but there are many types of symptoms of epilepsy, including the following:  

Focal seizures, including:  
-    Partial seizure:
This seizure does not appear in the form of losing consciousness but appears in the form of changing the feeling, shape, or taste of known things. 

-    Complex partial seizure:
This type causes a change in cognitive status and then loss of consciousness for a certain period and unexplained movements such as rubbing hands and swallowing sounds. 

Generalized seizures:  
-    Absence seizures:
Characterized by staring into space and temporary deterioration of consciousness. 

-    Myoclonic seizure:
Characterized by sharp movements in the hands and legs. 

-    Tonic-Clonic seizure:
It is the most severe type of seizure, characterized by loss of consciousness, stiffness, vibration, and tremor of the body with loss of control over discharge exits. 

What are the causes of epilepsy? 
There are many reasons for epilepsy to cause a defect in the genes responsible for connecting brain cells. Among them are: 
-    Head injuries. 
-    Stroke.  
-    Brain tumor. 
-    Family history: Genetic factors make up no more than 1% of the factors causing epilepsy. 
-    Inflammatory diseases of the brain: Such as meningitis, constant convulsions, and tremors during childhood as a result of high body temperature. 

Treatment of epilepsy:  
-    Drug therapy:  
The drug treatment for epilepsy is to provide accurate and correct treatment through specific doses suitable for each condition. In cases of children with epilepsy, if properly treated, they can recover from epilepsy over time. Also, if the patient has not had any seizure for two consecutive years, then they can stop the medication. 

-    Surgical treatment:  
If it is established that the source of epileptic seizures is in the area of the temporal lobes of the brain, surgical treatment is recommended. It's also recommended if there is more than one area or source of epileptic seizures and these areas contain vital functional parts. 

-    Preventive treatment:  
There are a lot of healthy steps that enhance epileptic seizures such as getting enough sleep, avoiding drugs and alcohol, avoiding bright lights and visual stimuli, avoiding video games, and eating a healthy diet.

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